Cookies are designed to facilitate access to and delivery of Internet-based services such as personalization of certain settings (language, country, display prices in national currency).
These pieces of information are used to improve services for you through, for example:
- enabling a service to recognise your device so you don’t have to give the same information during one task;
- recognising that you have already given a username and password so you don’t need to enter it for every web page requested;
- measuring how many people are using services, so they can be made easier to use and that there is enough capacity to ensure they are fast.
What is a cookie?
Cookie („browser cookie” or „HTTP cookie”) is a small file of letters and numbers that is stored on any terminal with internet access (computer, mobile phone, tablet, etc.) and is installed by the request issued by a web server to a browser (eg: Internet Explorer, Chrome).
Please note: Cookies do not contain software, viruses or spyware and can not access the information on the user’s hard drive. Cookies do not require personal information and do not personally identify Internet users.
A cookie consists of name and content, the duration of which is determined, and can be accessed again by the webserver when a user returns to the website associated with the respective webserver. In other words, the cookie can be seen as an Internet User ID card that announces the website every time the user returns to that site.
The purpose of cookies
Cookies provide a faster and easier interaction between the user and websites. For example, when a user logs on to a particular website, authentication data is stored in a cookie, after which the user can access that site without having to authenticate again.
Cookies are categorized as follows:
Session cookies – these are temporarily stored in the browser history that stores them until the user exits the site or closes the browser window.
Web pages do not have memory. A user browsing from one webpage to another will be considered by the website as a new user. The session-specific cookies typically store an identifier that allows the user to switch from one web page to another without having to enter the identifying information (username, password, etc.) every time.
Session-specific cookies are stored in the user’s computer memory only during an Internet browsing session and are deleted automatically when the browser is closed. They may become inaccessible and if the session has been inactive for a certain period of time (usually 20 minutes).
Persistent Cookies – These are stored, depending on the preset time, on the hard drive of a computer or equipment. Persistent cookies also include those placed on a website other than the one the user is currently visiting – known as “third party cookies” – that can be used anonymously to store a user’s interests, so so that advertising is delivered as relevant as possible to users.
A cookie contains information linking users to a particular website. If a browser accesses that web-server again, it can read the already stored information and react accordingly. Cookies provide users with a pleasant browsing experience and support the efforts of many websites to provide comfortable user services: ex – online privacy preferences, site language options, shopping carts, or relevant advertising.
Persistent cookies can be used to identify individual users and thus to analyze user behavior online. They can provide information about the number of visitors to a website, the time (on average) spent on a particular page, and generally the performance of a website. These cookies are configured to be able to track user activities for a long time, in some cases even years.
The life of a cookie may be different depending on the purpose for which it is placed. There are only one-session cookies – they are no longer retained after the user leaves the site. Permanent cookies – are retained and reused whenever the user returns to that site, but can be deleted at any time by the user.
Types of cookies used:
A visit to this site may place cookies for purposes of:
- Site performance cookies
- Visitor analysis cookies
- Cookies for geotargetting
- Recording cookies
- Cookies for advertising
- Advertiser cookies
These cookies may come from third parties.
This type of cookie retains the user’s preferences on this site, so they no longer need to be set on every site visit. For example: volume settings for video player, streaming video speed with which browser is compatible.
Cookies for Visitor Analysis
Cookies for geotargetting
These cookies are used by software that determines where you come from. It is completely anonymous and is only used to target the content – even when you are on our page in Romanian or in another language you receive the same advertisement.
Cookies for registration
When you sign up for this site, we generate a cookie that tells us if you are registered or not. Our servers use these cookies to show us your account and if you have permission for a particular service. It also allows us to associate any comments you post on our site with your username. If you did not select “keep me registered,” this cookie will automatically delete when you close your browser or computer. For the moment this website.
For the moment this website doesn’t use a registration form and we do not ask you for your personal data, but if you want to send us your CV we’ll need your email address.
Cookies for advertising
These cookies let us know whether or not you viewed an online ad, what is its type and how long it has been since you saw the ad message. These cookies are also used to target online advertising. We may also use third-party cookies for better advertising targeting, for example, to show ads about holidays if the user has recently visited an article on the vacancy site. These cookies are anonymous, they store information about the viewed content, not the users. We also set up anonymous cookies through other sites that we advertise. By accepting them, we can use them to recognize you as a visitor to that site if you later visit our site, we will be able to deliver advertising based on this information.
Much of the advertising you find on this site belongs to third parties. Some of these parties use their own anonymous cookies to analyze how many people have been exposed to an ad, or to see how many people have been exposed multiple times to the same ad. The companies that generate these cookies have their own privacy policies and this site does not have access to read or write these cookies. Third-party cookies can be used to show your target advertising on other sites, based on your browsing on this site.
Why are cookies important for the internet?
Cookies are the central focus of the efficient Internet, helping to generate a friendly browsing experience and tailored to the preferences and interests of each user. Denying or disabling cookies can make some sites unusable. Denying or disabling cookies does not mean you will not receive online advertising – just that it will no longer be able to keep track of your preferences and interests highlighted by your browsing behavior.
Security and privacy information
Cookies are NOT Viruses! They use plain text formats. They are not made up of pieces of code so they can not be executed or can auto-run. Consequently, they can not duplicate or replicate on other networks to run or replicate again. Because they can not perform these functions, they can not be considered viruses.
Cookies can still be used for negative purposes. Because it stores information about user preferences and browsing history, both on a particular site and on several other sites, cookies can be used as a form of Spyware. Many anti-spyware products are aware of this and consistently mark cookies to be deleted in anti-virus / anti-spyware removal / scanning procedures.
In general, browsers have built-in privacy settings that provide different levels of cookie acceptance, shelf life, and automatic deletion after the user has visited a particular site.
Since identity protection is very valuable and is the right of every internet user, it is advisable to know what issues can create cookies. In order to transmit constant information in both ways between the browser and the website, if an attacker or unauthorized person intervenes during the data transmission, the information contained in the cookie can be intercepted. Although very rarely, this can happen if the browser connects to the server using an unencrypted network (eg an unsecured WiFi network).
Other cookie-based attacks involve bad cookie settings on servers. If a website does not require the browser to use only encrypted channels, attackers can use this vulnerability to prevent browsers from sending information through insecure channels. Attackers then use the information for the purpose of unauthorized access to certain sites. It is very important to be careful in choosing the most appropriate method of protecting personal information.
Regulation the cookie usage
The EU law on the handling of personal data, The General Data Protection Regulation, is often referred to as GDPR.
The GDPR is a set of EU regulations that represent the most significant initiative on data protection in 20 years.
The purpose is to protect “natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data”, e.g. the website user.
To give people control over how their data is used and to protect “fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons”, the regulation sets out strict requirements on data handling procedures, transparency, documentation and user consent.
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation)
What is the GDPR-definition of personal data?
In the General Data Protection Regulation, the data to be protected is defined as follows:
(26): The principles of data protection should apply to any information concerning an identified or identifiable natural person.
Personal data which have undergone pseudonymisation, which could be attributed to a natural person by the use of additional information should be considered to be information on an identifiable natural person.